«Was the ONLY possible cause of DEATH in ALL SUDDEN cardiac death cases»

… Large cohort and epidemiologic studies have suggested that COVID-19 VRM [ Vaccine-related myocarditis ]  is associated with the use of mRNA vaccines

… especially in young males and after the second dose of vaccination

… there are several reported COVID-19 VRM cases showing unfavorable clinical outcomes

… such as fulminant myocarditis (FM) or even death

… we analyzed the nationwide incidence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 VRM in the entire vaccinated Korean population

… KDCA [ Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency ]  organized the Expert Adjudication Committee on COVID-19 Vaccination Pericarditis/Myocarditis

… 1533 cases of suspected myocarditis were reported to the KDCA

… Acute myocarditis developed within 42 days after COVID-19 vaccination was considered as COVID-19 VRM

… the committee rejected … cases with a positive result for COVID-19 infection

… confirmed 480 cases of COVID-19 VRM

… COVID-19 VRM was common in males (62.3%)

… under 40 years (67.9%)

… after the use of mRNA vaccines (96.3%)

… VRM incidence was significantly higher in mRNA vaccines than in other vaccines … (per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001)

… highest in males between the ages of 12 and 17 years

… followed by males between the ages of 18 and 29 years

… Cardiac troponin levels were elevated in 464 COVID-19 VRM cases (96.7%)

… Vaccine-related myocarditis was confirmed by the endo-myocardial biopsy

… Severe COVID-19 VRM was identified in 95 cases (19.8%)

… 85 ICU admissions (17.7%)

… 36 FM [ Fulminant Myocarditis ]  (7.5%)

… 21 ECMO [ ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation ] therapies (4.4%)

… 21 deaths (4.4%), and 1 heart transplantation (0.2%)

… histopathologic examination of the explanted heart demonstrated giant cell myocarditis

… Autopsy studies were done for sudden death cases after COVID-19 vaccination

… identified eight sudden cardiac death (SCD) cases attributable to COVID-19 VRM

… in individuals aged under 45 years in all cases

… All SCD cases received mRNA vaccines

… The present nationwide study involving more than 44 million vaccinated individuals

… we demonstrated severe COVID-19 VRM including FM or death was not uncommon (19.8% of total VRM)

… Sudden cardiac death was the most serious and worrisome adverse reaction of COVID-19 vaccination

… Vaccine-related myocarditis was the only possible cause of death in all SCD cases